# Where we are using amplitude modulation pdf

Amplitude modulation a1 49 you will see in this experiment, and in others to follow, that there is no problem in generating an am signal with a depth of modulation exceeding 100%, and without any rf distortion whatsoever. Modulation is defined as a process by virtue of which, some characteristic of a high frequency sinusoidal wave is varied in accordance with the instantaneous amplitude of the baseband signal. The amplitude of the carrier is maintained constant. What we do in am, very roughly,is to throw away the frequency content of. We consider binary modulation schemes and multilevel modulation schemes here. In amplitude modulation, the amplitude signal strength of the carrier wave is varied in proportion to that of the message signal being transmitted. Download pdf introduction in am schemes, the modulation index refers to the amplitude ratio of the modulating signal to the carrier signal. Naturally, the amplitude of the current pulses through transistor q1 will vary. Amplitude modulation, am, is one of the most straightforward ways of modulating a radio signal or carrier. However,we shall consider only two commonly used method, phase modulation and frequency. If we adjust the potentiometer or change the amplitude of the message signal we can change the percentage modulation of the modulation index. By using modulation to transmit the signals through space to long distances, we have removed the need for wires in communication systems. Although the use of amplitude modulation is decreasing, it nevertheless forms the basis of other forms of modulation that are still being widely used, or their use is increasing. The idea is simple, though the notion that it can be used to modulate signals for transmission was hardly obvious before its discovery.

The basic theory and equations behind amplitude modulation are relatively straightforward and can be handled using straightforward trigonometric calculations and manipulation. The message signal is, for example, a function of the sound to be reproduced by a. Amplitude modulation early radio ee 442 spring semester. Amplitude modulation, am, is one of the most straightforward ways of modulating a radio. In the continuouswave modulation, a high frequency sine wave is used as a carrier wave. Using amplitude modulation to shift the baseband signal fm radio 88mhz108 mhz. We generated three types of modulation perfect modulation. Basic concept of modulation the information source typically a low frequency signal referred to as the baseband signal carrier a higher frequency sinusoid example. The receivers used to listen to amdsbc are perhaps the simplest receivers of any radio modulation technique. Study of 100 gigabit ethernet using carrierless amplitude.

Most radio systems in the 20th century used frequency modulation fm or amplitude modulation am for radio broadcast a modulator is a device that performs modulation. The length of the arrow called a phasor is the amplitude, and its direction or angle is the phase. Use modulation to transfer information to a higher frequency. The amplitude of the analog signal is sampled at uniform intervals and each sample is quantized to its nearest. Other methods of demodulating an am signal use synchronous techniques and provide much lower levels of distortion and improved reception where. Amplitude modulation or am is a method to transmit signals via electromagnetic transmission. When we calculate percentage of modulation in an am signal, we are really calculating the modulation index. We have used simulink library tool in matlab to practically implement the equation of am with the help of blocks in library. Each radio station is assigned 200 khz, to transmit a stereo audio. We will get the percentage of modulation, just by multiplying the modulation index value with 100. Two signals are involved in the modulation process. Channels, modulation, and demodulation of binary pam where the basic pulse shape pt is a sinc function. The highest frequency of the modulating data is normally less than 10 percent of the carrier frequency. It is formed by taking a signal that has the carrier.

Unlike last months equations which we could interpret using no more than olevel or maybe alevel maths this one is a monster. By spatial filtering we combine four neighboring pixels into one superpixel. Simulink implementation of amplitude modulation technique. The amplitude modulation am modulation index can be defined as a measure of the amplitude variation upon a carrier. The am modulation index is the same information as the percentage of modulation. Before we study in detail about pam lets know the concepts of. Therefore, both fm and pm are often referred to as angle modulation. Quadrature amplitude modulation is widely used for carrying many digital signals, everything from wifi to mobile phone communications and very much more. What is amplitude modulation, am electronics notes. In this experiment, you will examine the characteristics of amplitude modulation am. Note that this is on the very low end of the recommended voltage range. We find that the expression for v o t of equation 3 represents an am wave with m 2ba hence, the square law modulator produces an am wave.

The modulation index or modulation depth is often denoted in percentage called as percentage of modulation. We discuss discrete changes in the characteristics of the carrier digital modulation in 14. For fm detection, am at the same rate was superimposed with varying am depth. Using a sine waveform there are three parameters which we can use to modulate a message onto the carrier they are the. Although the bandwidth of an am signal is narrower than one using frequency modulation fm, it is twice as wide as singlesideband techniques. Pulse amplitude modulation is the basic form of pulse modulation. It is the standard form of digital audio in computers, cds, digital telephony and other digital audio applications. In this modulation, the signal is sampled at regular intervals and each sample is made proportional to the amplitude of the modulating signal. The target stimuli always contained both amplitude and frequency modulations. But we are getting ahead of ourselves, as we have not yet even defined what am is. It is given the symbol m and can have a value between 0 0% modulation and 1 100% modulation. The aim of this topic is to explore the reasons for using modulation.

Pdf on amplitude and frequency demodulation using energy. Pdf interactions between amplitude modulation and frequency. Amplitude modulation am, demodulation and their circuit. Angle cw modulation with noise in the analysis of pm and fm systems, demodulation will be represented by yt. If we vary the amplitude of the carrier wave in accordance with the modulating signal input signal it is known as amplitude modulation.

Phase modulation pm is a different form of frequency modulation and the carrier is similar in appearance to a frequencymodulated carrier. Instead, a carrier wave, whose properties are better suited to the transmission requirements, is modified modulated. Amplitudeshift keying ask frequencyshift keying fsk phaseshift keying psk all of these techniques vary a parameter of a sinusoid. Conclusions in this paper, we have implemented amplitude modulation technique with the help of equation of am. It can be achieved in a number of ways, but the simplest uses a single diode rectifier circuit. The code for amplitude modulation am with control of modulation index ma has been developed using matlab according to conventional theory. Amplitude modulation am is a modulation technique used in electronic communication, most commonly for transmitting information via a radio carrier wave. Next topic pulse code modulation pulsecode modulation pcm is used to digitally represent sampled analog signals. At this point, you would be completely justified in running, screaming, for the hills. The method of varying amplitude of a highfrequency carrier wave in accordance with the information to be transmitted, keeping the frequency and phase of the carrier wave unchanged is called amplitude modulation. It requires that the amplitude of the dc a part of a t is equal to the amplitude of the ac part a. This is further divided into amplitude and angle modulation.

Communication systemsamplitude modulation wikibooks. Its still used in radio systems to transmit audio signals although it has lesser in popularity compared to fm due to its lower signal to noise ratio. Single sideband is widely used for hf communications. Essentially an amplitude modulated wave consists of a radio frequency carrier a sine wave at one frequency, typically in the radio frequency portion of the spectrum. At each superpixel we are able to independently modulate the phase and the amplitude of light. Amplitude modulation am communication systems arose from the need to send an acoustic signal, the message, over the airwaves using a reasonably sized antenna to radiate it. This varying supply voltage is applied to the class c amplifier. In particular, we discuss amplitude and frequency modulation.

With the help of fastfouriertransforms fft, the modulation index can be obtained by measuring the sideband amplitude and the carrier amplitude. Double sideband suppressed carrier dsbsc modulation double sideband large carrier dsblc modulation. We experimentally demonstrate the independent phase and amplitude modulation using. This frequency shift is proportional to the frequency of carrier. Modulationtypesamplitude,frequency,phase modulation. In this code, it is considered the default value of ma equal to 1 for hundred percent modulation. Dutton ee3 winter 2004 1 ee3 lab 1 amplitude modulation and demodulation 1 lab notes a word about power.

Generation of am waves using the switching modulator could be understood in a better way by observing the switching modulator diagram. We present a method for full spatial phase and amplitude control of a laser beam using a twisted nematic lcd combined with a spatial filter. Amplitude modulation am is a method of impressing data onto an alternatingcurrent ac carrier waveform. Explain the generation of am waves using square law. Link power budget for cap and ofdm for the two cwdm channels con. When the modulation signal occurs, the ac voltage across the secondary of the modulation transformer will be added to and subtracted from the collector supply voltage. Amplitude modulation an overview sciencedirect topics. The size of the antenna depends inversely on the frequencies present in the message. Matlab code for amplitude modulation am file exchange. The information is considered as the modulating signal and it is superimposed on the carrier wave by applying both of them to the. Most input signals, commonly created by transducers, cant be sent directly over the communication channel. Measuring the modulation index of an am signal using an. Principles of communication modulation tutorialspoint.

The left and right channels each limited to 15khz are multiplexed into a single baseband signal using amplitude modulation using frequency modulation to shift the baseband. In the process of modulation, the baseband signal is translated i. Modulation allows us to transmit multiple signals in the same medium i. Commercial broadcast stations use this type and it is commonly known as jus t amplitude modulation am. The predetection part of an angle modulation receiver is the same as for amplitude modulation. Amplitude modulation definition, types, solved examples. An introduction to frequency modulation sound on sound. Thats right and then finally, theres a way of changing the frequency of the signal, either changing it by a factor of 10 or a vernier adjustment, if you want very specific adjustments, very delicate changes. This approach is called angle modulation, and includes frequency modulation fm and phase modulation pm. Single sideband ssb modulation vestigial sideband vsb modulation we will study winter 2003 uw, ece 318 lecture notes. In electronics and telecommunications, modulation is the process of varying one or more properties of a periodic waveform, called the carrier signal, with a modulating signal that typically contains information to be transmitted. We show that the probability density function pdf characterizing the output of tkeo, is asymmetric and highly skewed pdf with a. We begin our discussion of digital modulation by starting with the three basic types of digital modulation techniques. The technique of modulation helped humans to become wireless.

Similarly, it can be frequency modulation and phase modulation also in other words modulation is the phenomenon of superimposition of modulating signal input signal into the carrier wave. For a perfect modulation, the value of modulation index should be 1, which implies the percentage of modulation should be 100%. The instantaneous amplitude overall signal power varies depending on the instantaneous amplitude of the modulating data. And well be using that actually when we demonstrate amplitude modulation. If the receiver gets a signal that is at a phase angle of 5 degrees, it means that the 2bit combination 01 is being.

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